Sunday, May 22, 2022

பேராசிரியர் வில்லியம் டேவர்- பைபிளிய தொல்லியல் பிதாமகர் தன்னை கிறிஸ்துவர் இல்லை என அறிவித்துவிட்டார்.

பேராசிரியர் வில்லியம் டேவர்- பைபிளிய தொல்லியல் பிதாமகர் தன்னை  கட்டுக்கதை  இல்லை கிறிஸ்துவத்துவம் என விட்டு விலகிவிட்டார்.  இஸ்ரேல் மற்றும் அண்டைய நாடுகள் தொல்லியல் வரலாறு ஆராய்ச்சியில்  50 ஆண்டுகளுக்கும் அதிகமாக பிதாமகர் எனவும் வில்லியம் ஆல்ப்ரைட் வழியினர்.முதலில் தொல்லியல் பைபிள் கதைகளை பொய்த்துவிட்டது என்றவர்களை மறுத்தவர், ஆதாரம் முழு பைபிளும் கட்டுக்கதை என தொல்லியல் நிரூபித்துவிட்டது என்பதை ஏற்றார்

அமெரிக்க பென்சில்வேனியா லிகாமிங் பல்கலைக் கழக கிழக்காசிய பண்டை தொல்லியல் பேராசிரியர் வில்லியம் டேவர் - இயேசு - கிறிஸ்து அத்தனையும் கட்டுக்கதை என கிறிஸ்துவத்தை விட்டு முதலில் யூத மத்த்திற்கு மாறினார்; பிறாகு தொல்லியல்படி பழைய் ஏற்பாடு முழுவதும் கட்டுக் கதை என யூத மதத்தைவிட்டு விலகி விட்டு; மனித நேயர் என அறிவித்துவிட்டார்.
இஸ்ரேலில் இருந்தது கானானிய நாடோடிகளின் இயற்கை மதம் மட்டுமே என்றும், பைபிள் கதை தெய்வம் யாவே மனைவி உண்டு எனவும் நூல்கள், மட்டுமே காணொளிகள் தந்து உள்ளார்

William G. Dever  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_G._Dever

William Gwinn Dever (born November 27, 1933, Louisville, Kentucky) is an American archaeologist, Old Testament scholar, and historian, specialized in the history of the Ancient Near East and the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah in biblical times. He was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson from 1975 to 2002. He is a Distinguished Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology at Lycoming College in Pennsylvania.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hjx1c3NAVTQ


Personal life : Dever is the son of an evangelical pastor, was raised as an evangelical Christian, and became an evangelical preacher as well.   

He later rejected Christianity and converted to Reform Judaism, although he now identifies as a secular humanist and a non-believer. He is married to Pamela Gaber, professor of Old Testament and Judaic Studies at Lycoming College.

தொல்லியல்படி இஸ்ரேலில் இருந்தது ஒரு இயற்கை வழிபாட்டு சமயம்

தொல்லியலில் கிடைக்கும் பெரிய கொங்கை பெறிய புட்டங்கள் கொண்ட தாய் தெய்வ உருவ பொம்மை, பெண்மை இயற்கை வழிபாட்டை உறுதி செய்கின்றன. பொ.மு.7ம் நூற்றாண்டின் ஒரு கல்வெட்டு தாய் தெய்வம் யாவேயின் மனைவி கர்த்தர் என்றும் உள்ளது

அமெரிக்க பைபிள் சார் தொல்லியலாளரான பென்சில்வேனியா லிகாமிங் பல்கலைக் கழக கிழக்காசிய பண்டை தொல்லியல் பேராசிரியர் வில்லியம் டேவர் தொல்லியல் தரவுகள்படி இஸ்ரேலில் இருந்தது இறைவனை அறியாத  ஒரு இயற்கை மற்றும் முன்னோர் வழிபாட்டு சமயம் எனக் கூறுவார்.

இஸ்ரேலின் தொல்லியல் அகழாய்வுகள்படி இஸ்ரேலியர் தாய் தெய்வ வழிபாடு இயற்கை வழிபாடு கொண்டவர்களாக பொமு 6ம் நூற்றாண்டு வரையிலும் வாழ்ந்தனர் என்பது 1000க்கும் அதிகமான பெண் தெய்வ சிலை கிடைத்துள்ளது தெளிவாக காட்டுகிறது 

Plaque depicting Asherah
Plaque depicting Asherah. ( Looklex Encyclopaedia )

ஜெருசலேம் பொமு 700 -அகழாய்வில்  வயிறு, பெரிய கொங்கைகள் சுடுமண் சிற்பங்கள் செழிப்பை தருவாள் எனும் பழைய நாடோடி வேட்டைக் கூட்டத்தை காட்டுகிறது 


அமெரிக்க பென்சில்வேனியா லிகாமிங் பல்கலைக் கழக கிழக்காசிய பண்டை தொல்லியல் பேராசிரியர் வில்லியம் டேவர் 
//What Archaeology Can Tell Us About The Reality Of Ancient Israel As Archaeological Evidence Mounted, However, In The Heyday Of “Biblical Archaeology” Between The 1930s And The 1950s, The Question Of Israelite Origins Grew More Intractable. To Everyone’sfrustration, New Data Brought More Questions Than Answers. In Fact, No One Had Ever Found Anyarchaeological Evidence For The Exodus From Egypt. // -Dever, William G. (2001), What Did The Biblical Writers Know And When Did They Know It? 


Education: Dever received his B.A. from Milligan College in 1955, an M.A. from Butler University in 1959, and a B.D. from the Christian Theological Seminary in 1959. He received his PhD from Harvard University in 1966. He describes himself as "an unreconstructed traditionalist by temperament and training."


Excavations: Dever was director of the Harvard Semitic Museum–Hebrew Union College excavations at Gezer in 1966–1971, 1984, and 1990; director of the dig at Khirbet el-Kôm and Jebel Qacaqir (West Bank) 1967–1971; principal investigator at Tell el-Hayyat excavations (Jordan) 1981–1985, and assistant director, University of Arizona Expedition to Idalion, Cyprus, 1991, among other excavations.

Topics :He used his background in Near Eastern field archaeology to argue, in Did God Have a Wife? Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel (2005), for the persistence of the veneration of Asherah in the everyday religion of 'ordinary people' in ancient Israel and Judah. Discussing extensive archaeological evidence from a range of Israelite sites, largely dated between the 12th and the 8th centuries BCE, Dever argued that this 'folk' religion, with its local altars and cultic objects, amulets and votive offerings, was representative of the outlook of the majority of the population, and that the Jerusalem-centred 'book religion' of the Deuteronomist circle set out in the Hebrew Bible was only ever the preserve of an elite, a 'largely impractical' religious ideal.

Dever's views on the worship of Asherah are based to a significant extent on inscriptions at Khirbet el-Qom and Kuntillet Ajrud (though see also his discussion of the significance of a cultic stand from Taanach), as well as thousands of Asherah figurines that archaeologists have found in various Israel locations, including a dump near the First Temple (a dump he attributes to Josiah's iconoclastic reform efforts). His views on worship of the goddess as expressed in this book have been criticised by some. On his methodological approach more generally, Francesca Stavrakopoulou has suggested that his use of the term 'folk religion' 'ultimately endorses the old stereotype of 'popular' or 'folk' religion as the simplistic practices of rural communities', so perpetuating existing 'derogatory assumptions' that more recent discourses on the topic have sought to counter. Others, however, praise Dever's contributions to understanding the history of Israel and Judah in the Iron Age.

On the historicity of the Bible  : In retirement, Dever has become a frequent author on questions relating to the historicity of the Bible, criticizing many scholars who deny any historical value to the biblical accounts. However he is far from being a supporter of biblical literalism either. Instead he has written:

I am not reading the Bible as Scripture… I am in fact not even a theist. My view all along—and especially in the recent books—is first that the biblical narratives are indeed 'stories,' often fictional and almost always propagandistic, but that here and there they contain some valid historical information. That hardly makes me a 'maximalist.'

and

Archaeology as it is practiced today must be able to challenge, as well as confirm, the Bible stories. Some things described there really did happen, but others did not. The Biblical narratives about Abraham, Moses, Joshua and Solomon probably reflect some historical memories of people and places, but the 'larger than life' portraits of the Bible are unrealistic and contradicted by the archaeological evidence.

However, Dever is also clear that his historical field should be seen on a much broader canvas than merely how it relates to the Bible:

The most naïve misconception about Syro-Palestinian archaeology is that the rationale and purpose of 'biblical archaeology' (and, by extrapolation, Syro-Palestinian archaeology) is simply to elucidate the Bible, or the lands of the Bible

Because of these positions, Dever can be considered a centrist in the biblical field: while he is far more skeptical on the historicity of the Bible than biblical maximalists (whom he often accuses of fundamentalism), he is also vigourously critical of biblical minimalists like Philip R. Davies, Thomas L. Thompson and Niels Peter Lemche (whom he accuses of postmodernism and nihilism). Dever also has a long and bitter feud with fellow archaeologist Israel Finkelstein, whom he has described as "idiosyncratic and doctrinaire" and "a magician and a showman", to which Finkelstein answered by calling Dever "a jealous academic parasite" and "a biblical literalist disguised as a liberal".

In his books Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? and Has Archeology Buried the Bible? Dever denies the historicity of much of the Pentateuch (while admitting that its content may contain some historical kernels) and the Book of Joshua, but states that historical materials can be found from the Book of Judges and onwards.

At Lycoming College (since 2008) -Dever joined the faculty at Lycoming College in autumn 2008. He was appointed Distinguished Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology.[18]

Criticism-Dever's views have been criticized by some of his fellow scholars, both on the minimalist and maximalist field. Writing on Shofar, minimalist scholar Philip R. Davies, who is often criticized by Dever in the book, chided his inability to distance himself from his obsessions:

"[Dever's] agendas are that (a) a coordinated team of 'minimalists'/'revisionist' biblical historians are conspiring to deny the existence of ancient Israel (and even of historical 'facts' at all!); (b) Dever has been, and remains, the guardian of truth in matters archaeological; and (c) archaeology can confirm the reliability of Biblical history. The first two of these issues obscure the central thesis."[19]

Peter James, writing on the Palestine Exploration Quarterly, was critical of Dever, accusing him of dismissing contrary evidence without argument and failing to engage with detail as against wider cultural context:

"If Dever’s attempts to link narrative biblical history and archaeology represent mainstream thinking (as he claims), then the field is indeed in deep trouble. It is the kind of blind acceptance of traditional (unsubstantiated) 'synchronisms' espoused by Dever that has provided the very fuel for the minimalists’ criticisms. In short, Dever may prove to be his own worst enemy."[20]

In his book On the Reliability of the Old Testament, evangelical scholar Kenneth Kitchen criticizes Dever for not supporting the historicity of the Pentateuch and of the Book of Joshua, but praises him for his defence of the Bible from the Book of Judges onward:

"In his What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?, we have a robust and very valuable reply to minimalists, ruthlessly exposing their suspect agendas and sham "scholarship", following on from his refutations of Finkelstein's archaeological revisionism. It should be read and appreciated (from the period 1200 B.C. onward) for his firsthand contribution on the archaeological aspects, as well in conjunction with this book. There is much solid rock here, and all of us may rejoice in that fact".[21]

Dever also has a long and bitter feud with fellow archaeologist Israel Finkelstein, whom he has described as "idiosyncratic and doctrinaire" and "a magician and a showman", to which Finkelstein answered by calling Dever "a jealous academic parasite" and "a biblical literalist disguised as a liberal".[15][16] A 2004 debate between Finkelstein and William G. Dever, mediated by Hershel Shanks (then-editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review), quickly degenerated into insults, forcing Shanks to halt the debate. Shanks described the exchange between the two as "embarassing".[22][23]

Video lectures

A 2013 lecture by Dever on the Exodus is available on YouTube. He argues for existence of a historical Israel in the Iron Age, contrary to "revisionists" and "minimalists" such as Niels Peter Lemche. He concludes, however, in this lecture that in the much greater part the Exodus is a myth or "pseudo-history," and that the early Israelites were mostly indigenous Canaanites, while stating that a group of a few thousand migrants from Egypt probably joined Israel in the 13th century BCE or later.

A 2013 lecture by Dever on whether God had a wife (Asherah) is available on YouTube. In this lecture, he characterizes the Bible as a selective version of Israelite religion told by a right-wing clique of elites, and he argues that the majority of ordinary people were not monotheistic Yahwists and they venerated the "Great Goddess Asherah."[24] He concludes by equating Asherah with the Shekhinah in subsequent Judaism.

A similar 2014 lecture by Dever at Emory is available on YouTube.




No comments:

Post a Comment

B.R.AMBEDKAR - PAKISTAN BOOK - APPENDIXWA